City in Maryland, United StatesFrederick, MarylandCity of FrederickBridge on Carroll CreekMotto( s): "The City of Clustered Spires" Location within the State of MarylandShow map of MarylandFrederick (the United States) Program map of the United StatesCoordinates: Coordinates: United States Founded1745Government MayorMichael O'Connor (D-MD) Board of AldermenKelly Russell (D-MD) Ben MacShane (D-MD) Derek Shackleford (D-MD) Donna Kuzemchak (D-MD) Roger Wilson (D-MD) Location City24.
28 km2) Land23. 95 sq mi (62. 02 km2) Water0. 10 sq mi (0. 26 km2) Elevation302 ft (92 m) Population City65,239 Quote 72,244 Density3,016. 95/sq mi (1,164. 84/km2) Urban141,576 (United States: 230th)UTC5 (EST) Summer (DST)UTC4 (EDT) 21701-21709301, 24024-30325GNIS feature ID0584497I-70, I-270, United States 15, United States 40, United States 340, MD 80, MD 144, MD 355Website Frederick is a city in, and the county seat, of Frederick County, Maryland.
Frederick has long been a crucial crossroads, situated at the crossway of a significant northsouth Indian path and eastwest routes to the Chesapeake Bay, both at Baltimore and what became Washington, D.C. and throughout the Appalachian mountains to the Ohio River watershed. It belongs of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which belongs to a higher Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area.
Frederick is house to Frederick Municipal Airport (IATA: FDK), which accommodates basic aviation, and to the county's biggest employer U.S. Army's Fort Detrick bioscience/communications research installation. Located where Catoctin Mountain (the easternmost ridge of the Blue Ridge mountains) meets the rolling hills of the Piedmont area, the Frederick location became a crossroads even before European explorers and traders arrived.
This ended up being referred to as the Monocacy Trail or perhaps the Great Indian Warpath, with some travelers continuing southward through the "Fantastic Appalachian Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, and so on) to the western Piedmont in North Carolina, or traveling down other watersheds in Virginia toward the Chesapeake Bay, such as those of the Rappahannock, James and York Rivers.
Established before 1730, when the Indian path became a wagon roadway, Monocacy was deserted prior to the American Revolutionary War, perhaps due to the river's regular flooding or hostilities preceding the French and Indian War, or just Frederick's much better area with simpler access to the Potomac River near its confluence with the Monocacy.
3 years previously, All Saints Church had actually been established on a hilltop near a warehouse/trading post. Sources disagree regarding which Frederick the town was named for, but the likeliest prospects are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (among the proprietors of Maryland), Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and Frederick "The Great" of Prussia.
Frederick Town (now Frederick) was made the county seat of Frederick County. The county initially encompassed the Appalachian mountains (areas additional west being contested between the colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania up until 1789). The existing town's first house was constructed by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate named Johann Thomas Schley (died 1790), who led a celebration of immigrants (including his spouse, Maria Von Winz) to the Maryland nest.
Schley's settlers also founded a German Reformed Church (today called Evangelical Reformed Church, and part of the UCC). Most likely the oldest home still standing in Frederick today is Schifferstadt, developed in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner and now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum. Schley's group was among the numerous Pennsylvania Dutch (ethnic Germans) (along with Scots-Irish and French and later Irish) who moved south and westward in the late-18th century.
Another crucial route continued along the Potomac River from near Frederick, to Hagerstown, where it divided. One branch crossed the Potomac River near Martinsburg, West Virginia and continued down into the Shenandoah valley. The other continued west to Cumberland, Maryland and ultimately crossed the Appalachian Mountains into the watershed of the Ohio River.
However, the British after the Proclamation of 1763 limited that westward migration path till after the American Revolutionary War. Other westward migrants continued south from Frederick to Roanoke along the Great Wagon Roadway, crossing the Appalachians into Kentucky and Tennessee at the Cumberland Gap near the Virginia/North Carolina border. Other German settlers in Frederick were Evangelical Lutherans, led by Rev.
They moved their mission church from Monocacy to what became a big complex a couple of blocks further down Church Street from the Anglicans and the German Reformed Church. Methodist missionary Robert Strawbridge accepted an invitation to preach at Frederick town in 1770, and Francis Asbury showed up 2 years later, both helping to discovered a parish which became Calvary Methodist Church, worshiping in a log structure from 1792 (although superseded by larger buildings in 1841, 1865, 1910 and 1930).
Jean DuBois was assigned in 1792, which ended up being St. John the Evangelist Church (integrated in 1800). To manage this crossroads throughout the American Revolution, the British garrisoned a German Hessian regiment in the town; the war (the stone, L-shaped "Hessian Barracks" still stand). All Saints Church, set up 1813, Principal Parish Church up until 1855As the county seat for Western Maryland, Frederick not only was an essential market town, however also the seat of justice.
Crucial attorneys who practiced in Frederick consisted of John Hanson, Francis Scott Key and Roger B. Taney. Church Street with All Saints and Reformed Church spires, FrederickFrederick was also understood throughout the nineteenth century for its religious pluralism, with among its primary thoroughfares, Church Street, hosting about a half lots major churches.
That original colonial structure was changed in 1814 by a brick classical revival structure. It still stands today, although the principal praise space has actually ended up being an even bigger brick gothic church joining it at the back and dealing with Frederick's Town hall (so the parish remains the earliest Episcopal Church in western Maryland).
John the Evangelist, was developed in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (across the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands along with a school and convent established by the Visitation Sis. The stone Evangelical Lutheran Church of 1752 was also rebuilt and enlarged in 1825, then replaced by the existing twin-spired structure in 1852.
It became an African-American congregation in 1864, relabelled Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church in 1870, and built its present building on All Saints Street in 1921. Together, these churches controlled the town, set versus the backdrop of the very first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier later on commemorated this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand/ Green-walled by the hills of Maryland." When U.S.
Louis (eventually constructed to Vandalia, then the state capital of Illinois), the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street. (This later ended up being U.S. Path 40.) Frederick's Jacob Engelbrecht referred Jefferson in 1824 (getting a transcribed psalm in return), and kept a diary from 1819-1878 which stays a crucial first-hand account of 19th century life from its perspective on the National Roadway.
Church Street by a regional physician to avoid the city from extending Record Street south through his land to meet West Patrick Street. Frederick likewise turned into one of the brand-new country's leading mining counties in the early 19th century. It exported gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Transformation, Catoctin Heating system near Thurmont ended up being important for iron production.
Frederick had easy access to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which began operations in 1831 and continued transporting freight up until 1924. Likewise in 1831, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) completed its Frederick Branch line from the Frederick (or Monocacy) Junction off the main Western Line from Baltimore to Harpers Ferryboat, Cumberland, and the Ohio River.
Louis by the 1850s. Confederate soldiers marching south on North Market Street throughout the Civil War Frederick ended up being Maryland's capital city briefly in 1861, as the legislature moved from Annapolis to vote on the secession question. President Lincoln jailed several members, and the assembly was not able to assemble a quorum to vote on secession.
Slaves likewise left from or through Frederick (because Maryland was still a "servant state" although an unseceded border state) to join the Union forces, work against the Confederacy and look for flexibility. Throughout the Maryland projects, both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. Frederick likewise hosted numerous healthcare facilities to nurse the wounded from those battles, as is associated in the National Museum of Civil War Medication on East Patrick Street.
Union Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's guys through the city a couple of days later the method to the Battle of South Mountain, where Reno died. The websites of the fights are due west of the city along the National Roadway, west of Burkittsville. Confederate soldiers under Jackson and Walker unsuccessfully tried to halt the Federal army's westward advance into the Cumberland Valley and towards Sharpsburg.
The 1889 memorial celebrating Major General Reno and the Union soldiers of his IX Corps is on Reno Monument Roadway west of Middletown, just listed below the top of Fox's Space, as is a 1993 memorial to killed Confederate Brig. Gen. Samuel Garland Jr., and the North Carolina soldiers who held the line.
George McClellan after the Battle of South Mountain and the Battle of Antietam, delivered a brief speech at what was then the B. & O. Railroad depot at the present crossway of East All Saints and South Market Streets. A plaque celebrates the speech (at what is today the Frederick Neighborhood Action Agency, a Social Providers workplace).
The Army of the Potomac camped around the Prospect Hall property for the several days as skirmishers pursued Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia prior to Gettysburg. A big granite rectangular monolith made from one of the boulders at the "Devil's Den" in Gettysburg to the east along the driveway commemorates the midnight change-of-command.
27 million in 2019 dollars) from residents for not taking down the city on their method to Washington D.C. Union soldiers under Major General Lew Wallace fought a successful delaying action, in what became the last significant Confederate advance at the Fight of Monocacy, also called the "Fight that conserved Washington." The Monocacy National Battleground lies just southeast of the city limitations, along the Monocacy River at the B.
Railway junction where two bridges cross the stream - an iron-truss bridge for the railway and a covered wooden bridge for the Frederick-Urbana-Georgetown Pike, which was the site of the primary battle of July 1864. Some skirmishing took place further northeast of town at the stone-arched "Jug Bridge" where the National Roadway crossed the Monocacy; and an artillery bombardment happened along the National Road west of town near Red Guy's Hill and Prospect Hall estate as the Union troops retreated eastward.
While Gettysburg National Battlefield of 1863 lies roughly 35 miles (56 km) to the north-northeast. The rebuilded house of Barbara Fritchie stands on West Patrick Street, just previous Carroll Creek linear park. Fritchie, a significant figure in Maryland history in her own right, is buried in Frederick's Mount Olivet Cemetery.
Roosevelt when they stopped here in 1941 on a cars and truck journey to the governmental retreat, then called "Shangra-La" (now "Camp David") within the Catoctin Mountains near Thurmont. Admiral Winfield Scott Schley (18391911) was born at "Richfields", the estate house of his father. He became a crucial marine commander of the American fleet on board his flagship and heavy cruiser USS Baltimore in addition to Admiral William T.
Major Henry Schley's boy, Dr. Fairfax Schley, contributed in establishing the Frederick County Agricultural Society and the Great Frederick Fair. Gilmer Schley functioned as Mayor from 1919 to 1922, and the Schleys remained among the town's leading families into the late-20th century. Nathaniel Wilson Schley, a prominent lender, and his partner Mary Margaret Schley helped arrange and raise funds for the yearly Great Frederick Fair, among the 2 biggest agricultural fairs in the State.